As a long-time practitioner of CM, I have been involved periodically in M&A situations. Usually this was the result of M&A that was never really resolve, e.g. two cultures still exist within the company or there are sub-groups based on former associations. It seems that M&A is a CM problem of the highest order. Chance of failure is high, tensions are high and the cost of not integrating will be the expected synergies that were driving the move in the first place. Interestingly enough, it seems that it is possible to map an M&A engagement directly to the standard CM framework that I follow. Vision becomes clarity on the expected synergies and the new operating model, for example. One difference that I’ve noted is the amount of external communication that is involved in M&A vs a typical change initiative. There is much more external communications required and more emphasis on taking care of customers.